Beauty Store Business

JUL 2016

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Page 59 of 115

58 July 2016 | Skincare Spotlight SKIN EXFOLIATION IS A NATURALLY OCCURRING physiological process, whereby dead surface skin cells organically slough off daily. This is often referred to as cellular turnover, and is the process of removing the top most layer of dead skin cells. As is the case with most naturally occurring physiological processes, this one slows as we age. Thus, manual exfoliation (whether with products or devices) often needs to be incorporated into one's skincare routine. The short-term benefi ts of exfoliation are many and include: promoting epidermal regeneration; enhanc- ing the softness and smoothness of the skin; helping to give the skin a more uniform texture; deep-cleansing the pores and helping to minimize breakouts, blackheads and whiteheads; helping skincare products penetrate more deeply through the stratum corneum. Over the long-term, regular exfoliation can also lead to increased collagen production, resulting in younger- looking skin. TYPES OF EXFOLIATION There are two types of exfoliation: chemical (also known as enzymatic) and mechanical (also known as physical). These two types are differentiated by the mechanism of action. Chemical Exfoliation This type of exfoliation happens as the dead cells are dissolved by various chemical agents, including: Acids, primarily hydroxy acids known as AHAs (alpha hydroxy acids) and BHAs (beta hydroxy acids). AHAs, composed of two to eight carbon atoms, are typ- ically found in fruit extracts and have the following effects: • Decrease of the thickness of the stratum corneum (which in turn provides the skin with a more beautiful glow) • Increase in the natural cellular turnover activity and process • Stimulation of the natural production system of gly- cosaminoglycans via keratinocytes—more hyaluronic acid is good for the skin, making it look more youthful and more plumped • Increase in the thickness of the epidermis via the stim- ulation of keratinocyte production Beta hydroxy acids also are often used—the main one being salicylic acid. This acid works on breakouts, white- heads and blackheads, and is contra-indicated for pregnant and nursing women. It includes enzymes, such as papain (from the papaya fruit) and bromelain (from pineapple). These enzymes digest the proteins between the dead cells of the surface of the skin in a gentle and effective action; thus dissolving dead skin cells and facilitating cellular renewal. Mechanical Exfoliation Mechanical or physical exfoliation is based on movement and friction–a physical process. Using a device such as a microdermabrasion machine is an example of physical exfoliation. The dead skin cells are not dissolved by a chemical agent, but mechanically loosened (friction) by a physical compound. In products, this friction is typically generated by "pieces" of things, for a lack of a better word; for example, pieces of dried cranberries or apricot kernels, jojoba pearls or small beads. The exfoliating compounds must be carefully chosen to avoid overprocessing and over-exfoliating the skin; or creating micro-wounds, which lead to irritation, redness, sensitivity, dilated blood vessels and more. MICROBEADS Having mentioned the word beads, I am sure you are wondering about what happened with microbeads, more specifically polyethylene microbeads. At the close of 2015, the U.S. government passed into law the Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015 (H.R. 1321) to ban the production of personal-care products and rinse-off cosmetics containing plastic microbeads, effective July 2017. The law also banned the sale of cosmetics containing microbeads, effective July 2018, and the cosmetics that are also over-the-counter drugs containing these plastic particles, cannot be made after July 1, 2018, or sold after effective July 2019. This federal law supplants state laws that have different provisions for rinse-off cosmetics, although state bans on microbeads in other products continue to be in effect. Microbeads are defi ned in the United States law rule as any solid plastic particle less than 5mm in size and intended to be used to exfoliate or cleanse. They often are used in prod- ucts such as toothpastes, facial cleansers and scrubs. The reason for this ban is that these microbeads were entering natural waterways as they were not being effectively treated by wastewater treatment plants. Indeed, a United National Environment Programme report concluded that most such plastics in cosmetics and personal-care products contained non-degradable polymers that may take hundreds of years to break down via oxidative or photodegradation routes. Exfoliation: An Overview Given the new federal law concerning microbeads, a review of skin exfoliation is timely. by Ada S. Polla Images courtesy of Ada S. Polla; photo by Kelli Dailey, Third Line Studios Acid Chemical Formulation Natural pH Source Glycolic Sugar 3.83 Acid Cane Malic Apple 3.46 Acid Tartaric Grapes 3.04 Acid Citric Orange, 3.13 Acid Lemon Mandelic Almonds 3.41 Acid CH 2 OH COOH CH 2 CH OH COOH COOH CH CH OH HO COOH COOH CH 2 CH 2 C OH COOH COOH COOH CH OH COOH Acid Chemical Formulation Natural pH Source Salicylic Willow 2.97 Acid OH OH O

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