Beauty Store Business

AUG 2017

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106 August 2017 | or through daily supplementation, few realize that there is a dark side to iron— namely, excess iron. Excess iron is involved in a number of diseases, which all have an oxidative com- ponent (whether cardiovascular, brain or muscle diseases) as well as in premature skin aging. Indeed, free iron is involved in the Fenton chemical reaction that leads to the production of the hydroxyl radical, one of the most harmful free radicals. The management and prevention of excess iron can be done through the use of topical iron chelators to prevent photodam- age and premature skin aging; this is an interesting approach to skin care. Neutral- izing free iron helps to minimize its involve- ment in the production of free radicals, thus promoting the skin's youthful look. How to Use Them for Antiaging: Research has shown that quercetin and myricetin (two types of polyphenols) have iron-chelating properties, meaning that they minimize the formation of free radicals stimulated by excess free iron and UV light. Key sources of quercetin and myricetin include blueberry extract and grape seeds. STEM CELLS Stem cells are undifferentiated cells characterized by self-renewal (they mul- tiply to produce new stem cells) and by differentiation. Upon exposure to tissue- specific biochemical signals, they turn into tissue-specific specialized cells. They play a key role in tissue development and regeneration, and represent an ideal model for understanding tissue proliferation and differentiation. When reviewing human stem cells, there are two major categories: embry- onic and adult. Embryonic stem cells are the more powerful. Embryonic stem cells have the extraordinary potential to form all tissues of the body. They can be found in early embryos (human embryos between zero and three to five days) and are also present in umbilical cord blood collected at birth. Embryonic stem cells are undifferenti- ated cells characterized by their combined capacity for self-renewal and differen- tiation. They can multiply to produce new identical stem cells and have a potentially unlimited proliferation capacity. Further- more, upon exposure to tissue-specific biochemical signals, embryonic stem cells create specialized cells that may develop into different tissues. How to Use Them for Antiaging: It is generally unpalatable to today's consumer to use products that contain stem cells from human embryos, or even stem cells from other animals. As such, the cosmetics industry has turned to plant stem cells as more politically correct alternatives. Simi- lar to human skin, plants contain stem cells that are located at their apical and root meristem. The meristems are composed of totipotent stem cells capable of generating an entire organism. They are found in those regions of the plant where growth takes place. There are nearly inexhaustible res- ervoirs of undifferentiated cells capable of self-sustaining and of providing precursors for differentiated cells. Finally, plant stem cell extracts have been shown to have anti-wrinkle effects. RETINOL Retinol (also known as vitamin A) and its esters remain the gold standard in antiag- ing topical products. In the 1980s, retinoic acid was discovered for the treatment of severe acne. A positive side effect was also noticed, namely an improvement in the appearance of photoaged skin. Retinol has been proven to effectively stimulate cell turnover and increase the skin's natural collagen production. But, retinol is as aggressive as it is effective, which has led the cosmetic industry to embrace retinol derivatives and esters, including retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, retinaldehyde and more. How to Use Them for Antiaging: Tretinoin was the first retinoid approved by the FDA to treat wrinkles by increas- ing the skin's collagen production—and remains available by prescription only. Over-the-counter retinoids are products that you can recommend to your cus- tomers, which include products based on actual retinol, retinol derivatives or esters. It is important to note that most retinol-based products should be used exclusively at night because they can cause photosensitivity to the skin. And, a sunscreen must be applied every morning when using a retinol at night. Even in the case of lower doses or in its derivative forms, products containing retinol will most likely cause some irritation to the skin (mostly flaking). Retinol is not recom- mended for nursing or pregnant women. HYALURONIC ACID Hyaluronan, also known as hyaluronic acid (HA), is a high-molecular-weight car- bohydrate polymer found in all tissues of the body. The skin is where more than 50 percent of all of the HA in the body resides. Hyaluronic acid is important in cosmetics for two main reasons: The first is that it helps the skin maintain its moisture levels. The second is that as we age, HA becomes less available in the skin, and thus results in wrinkling and loss of volume. In the beauty indus- try, HA is known first and foremost as an injectable, used to increase volume in the face and in particular in the lips. How to Use Them for Antiaging: Hyaluronic acid also has its place in topical products. Its key property is to attract moisture to the skin and to help the skin maintain its moisture levels— because it can absorb up to 1,000 times its weight in water (you can think of it as a sponge). As such, HA plays a key role in hydration. It is particularly recommended for oilier skin types that nonetheless still need hydration, and for sensitive skin types. You will often see both hyaluronic acid and sodium hyaluronate (a salt derived from hyaluronic acid) listed as ingredients. Both are well tolerated and well absorbed by the skin. You may also come across verbiage that speaks to the size of the hyal- uronic acid molecule. In general, smaller molecules will be more deeply absorbed into the skin; but, that does not make a larger molecule ineffective, particularly when speaking about hydration. PROBIOTICS Probiotics are best described as strains of bacteria that are beneficial to one's health because they protect their host and help prevent disease. Consumers associate probiotics with a healthy gut and better digestion. However, the health benefits of oral probiotics, whether in foods or as supplements, go beyond a healthy gut, and include helping to maintain healthy cholesterol levels, strengthen the immune system, increase energy levels and man- age weight. Probiotics are found in lactic-acid- fermented foods such as vegetables like kimchi and sauerkraut, dairy products (yogurt, cheese, buttermilk), soy prod- ucts, tofu and even naturally fermented, unpasteurized beer. How to Use Them for Antiaging: Data suggests that probiotics are use- ful in antiaging skincare products. The American Academy of Dermatology released an opinion paper in February 2014 on probiotics, stating that Whitney P. Bowe, MD, FAAD, a board-certified dermatologist, believes that "skin prone to acne or rosacea has shown improve- ment with daily probiotic use, giving dermatologists reason to consider sup- plementing traditional acne therapy with a dose of this beneficial bacteria." More recently, in a study from last October, a team of scientists reported the topical benefits of probiotics in the Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnol- ogy. The topical benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 were investigated in a double-blind study involving 110 vol- unteers from 41 to 59 years of age, who had dry skin and wrinkles. The method- ology and results of this study suggest that the benefits of the group using Lactobacillus plantarum experienced increased hydration of the skin and a reduction in wrinkles. ■ Ada S. Polla is the president, CEO and co-creator of the skincare line Alchimie Forever of Switzerland, which launched in the U.S. in 2004. Skincare Spotlight ✔ Fine lines and wrinkles ✔ Loss of skin firmness ✔ Enlarged pores ✔ Uneven skin tone and brown spots ✔ Dullness ✔ Dryness THE SIGNS OF AGING While most of us think of fine lines and wrinkles, there are several other signs of skin aging, which can all be treated topically to some degree. These signs include:

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